Here we will see Python REST APIs + Flask + Angular CRUD Example. We will use our existing tutorial on Python REST API CRUD Example using Flask and MySQL for server side and we will introduce Angular on UI side. So go through it before proceeding further down.

Recommended reading:

Python web application CRUD example using Flask and MySQL

Prerequisites

Knowledge of Python

Knowledge of Angular

Setting up Angular project

Please make sure you go through the tutorial how to create new Angular project on Windows.

Create a project called angularjs-python in your desired directory by executing the following command in cmd window:

ng new angularjs-python

Once your project downloads the necessary libraries, make sure your newly created project compiles and opens in browser successfully. To check this navigate to the directory angularjs-python and execute the following command:

ng serve --open

Now stop the server and create the required modules for CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) operations. We will perform CRUD operations on user management.

To know more about Angular style guide, check it here.

Execute below commands one by one when you are onto angularjs-python directory in cmd window:

ng g c user-list --routing=true
ng g c user-add --routing=true
ng g c user-edit --routing=true
ng g c user-detail --routing=true

The above commands will create required directory structures under src/app folder.

If you open src/app/app.module.ts file, you will see entries for all new modules are also added to this file.

Creating routing

You need to create routes for navigating through your application. For example, you want to create new user, so you will click on a link – New User. You may update existing user, so you may click on Edit link and so on.

Create a file src/app/app-routing.module.ts with below source code:

import { NgModule }             from '@angular/core';
import { RouterModule, Routes } from '@angular/router';

import { UserListComponent } from './user-list/user-list.component';
import { UserAddComponent } from './user-add/user-add.component';
import { UserEditComponent } from './user-edit/user-edit.component';
import { UserDetailComponent } from './user-detail/user-detail.component';

const routes: Routes = [
  { path: '', redirectTo: '/user', pathMatch: 'full' },
  { path: 'user', component: UserListComponent },
  { path: 'detail/:id', component: UserDetailComponent },
  { path: 'edit/:id', component: UserEditComponent },
  { path: 'add', component: UserAddComponent }
];

@NgModule({
  imports: [ RouterModule.forRoot(routes) ],
  exports: [ RouterModule ]
})
export class AppRoutingModule {}

Adding additional modules

Open your src/app/app.module.ts and add few more modules for the application, such as, import FormsModule, HttpClientModule and AppRoutingModule. Make sure you have the same source code as below:

import { BrowserModule } from '@angular/platform-browser';
import { NgModule } from '@angular/core';

import { FormsModule }    from '@angular/forms';
import { HttpClientModule }    from '@angular/common/http';
import { AppRoutingModule } from './app-routing.module';

import { AppComponent } from './app.component';
import { UserListComponent } from './user-list/user-list.component';
import { UserAddComponent } from './user-add/user-add.component';
import { UserEditComponent } from './user-edit/user-edit.component';
import { UserDetailComponent } from './user-detail/user-detail.component';

@NgModule({
  declarations: [
    AppComponent,
    UserListComponent,
    UserAddComponent,
    UserEditComponent,
    UserDetailComponent
  ],
  imports: [
    BrowserModule,
	FormsModule,
	AppRoutingModule,
	HttpClientModule
  ],
  providers: [],
  bootstrap: [AppComponent]
})
export class AppModule { }

If you now open your application by executing command ng serve –open in cmd window you won’t redirect to the http://localhost:4200/user though we have redirected to the home path /user in src/app/app-routing.module.ts file.

You will see the path in browser as http://localhost:4200/user but you will also see the output on the browser from src/app/app.component.html file.

Therefore, remove everything from app.component.html file and put only <router-outlet></router-outlet> in this file and now save the file. You should now see the output as “user-list works!” on home page.

Creating model class

We will perform CRUD operations on user information, so we need to have user model class. Create src/app/user.ts file with below source code:

export class User {
  id?: number;
  name: string;
  email: string;
  pwd: string;
}

Here in the above class, notice I have put id? to indicate optional value for id field during adding new user information.

Creating service class

We need a central class that will be used by all modules in Angular to interact with server either to fetch the data or send the data to server when required for our example Python REST APIs + Flask + Angular CRUD Exmple.

Create below service class – src/app/user.service.ts – that will list down CRUD operation methods:

import { Injectable } from '@angular/core';
import { HttpClient, HttpHeaders } from '@angular/common/http';

import { Observable, of } from 'rxjs';
import { catchError, map, tap } from 'rxjs/operators';

import { User } from './user';

const httpOptions = {
  headers: new HttpHeaders({ 'Content-Type': 'application/json' })
};

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export class UserService {

  private userUrl = 'http://localhost:5000';  // URL to REST API

  constructor(private http: HttpClient) { }

  /** GET users from the server */
  getUsers(): Observable<User[]> {
    return this.http.get<User[]>(this.userUrl + '/users');
  }
  
  /** GET user by id. Will 404 if id not found */
  getUser(id: number): Observable<any> {
    const url = `${this.userUrl}/user/${id}`;
    return this.http.get<User>(url);
  }
  
  /** POST: add a new user to the server */
  addUser(user: User) {
	//console.log(user);
    return this.http.post(this.userUrl + '/add', user, httpOptions);
  }
  
  /** PUT: update the user on the server */
  updateUser(user: User): Observable<any> {
    return this.http.put(this.userUrl + '/update', user, httpOptions);
  }
  
  /** DELETE: delete the user from the server */
  deleteUser(user: User | number) {
	  if (confirm("Are you sure to delete?")) {
		const id = typeof user === 'number' ? user : user.id;
		const url = `${this.userUrl}/delete/${id}`;
		return this.http.delete(url, httpOptions);
	  }
	  return of({});
  }
  
}

In the above class we have defined methods for CRUD operations for users.

Now let’s see how we give user options through our UI to add new user, update existing user, fetching exiting users and deleting existing users for our Python REST APIs + Flask + Angular CRUD Example.

User List

First we will see how we fetch all users information from server. So modify the file src/app/user-list/user-list.component.ts to perform required operations.

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';

import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router';
import { User } from '../user';
import { UserService } from '../user.service';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-user-list',
  templateUrl: './user-list.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./user-list.component.css']
})
export class UserListComponent implements OnInit {

	users: User[] = [];

	constructor(private route: ActivatedRoute, private userService: UserService) { }

	ngOnInit() {
		this.getUsers();
	}

	getUsers(): void {
		this.userService.getUsers().subscribe(users => this.users = users);
	}
  
	delete(user: User): void {
		this.userService.deleteUser(user).subscribe(success=> {this.getUsers();});		
	}

}

In the above class, we have imported required modules. We fetch all users and populate the users[].

We have also defined our delete() method to perform delete operation. We don’t have separate module for delete operation because we don’t need separate page for this.

Now edit src/app/user-list/user-list.component.html file to show users information on page:

<h3>Users</h3>
<div>
	<a routerLink="/add">
		Add New User
	</a>
</div>
<table>
  <tr>
    <th>ID</th>
    <th>Name</th>
    <th>Email</th>
	<th>Actions</th>
  </tr>
  <tr *ngFor="let user of users">
    <td>{{user.id}}</td>
    <td>{{user.name}}</td>
    <td>{{user.email}}</td>
	<td>
		<a routerLink="/detail/{{user.id}}">Detail</a>
		 
		<a routerLink="/edit/{{user.id}}">Edit</a>
		 
		<button title="delete user" (click)="delete(user)">x</button>
	</td>
  </tr>
</table>

Here we are showing users information on HTML table and we have attached Detail, Edit and Delete operations for each row of the table.

One problem you will face when you run the server and client applications – CORS error.

So you need to install CORS module on server side code, i.e., Python REST API CRUD Example using Flask and MySQL using the following command in cmd window as an Administrator.

pip install -U flask-cors

Now once you are done successfully with installation then you can modify your app.py file as below:

from flask import Flask
from flask_cors import CORS, cross_origin

app = Flask(__name__)
CORS(app)

You need to update two queries in main.py script:

For route ‘/users’, change the query as

SELECT user_id id, user_name name, user_email email, user_password pwd FROM tbl_user

For route ‘user/<int:id>’, change the query as

SELECT user_id id, user_name name, user_email email, user_password pwd FROM tbl_user WHERE user_id=%s

The above changes are required to sync the above model class User in src/app/user.ts.

Now run the angularjs-python application, you will be able to see the page with one user information, provided the user information exists in the table.

python rest flask angularjs crud example

If you try to see detail or want to edit, you won’t be able to do that (you will only see default message appearing in the html page in respective modules) because those functionalities do not exist yet.

If you try to delete on clicking on the X button then you will be but we won’t delete now because we need to implement functionalities to perform other actions. When you try to delete you will be prompted with alert box for delete confirmation.

User Detail

Now we will see how to show user detail information when you click on Detail link.

Open src/app/user-detail/user-detail.component.ts file and update the file with below source code:

import { Component, OnInit } from '@angular/core';
import { Location } from '@angular/common';
import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router';

import { User } from '../user';
import { UserService } from '../user.service';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-user-detail',
  templateUrl: './user-detail.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./user-detail.component.css']
})
export class UserDetailComponent implements OnInit {
	
	user: User;

	constructor(private route: ActivatedRoute, private userService: UserService, private location: Location) { }
	
	ngOnInit() {
		this.getUser();
	}
	
	getUser(): void {
		const id = + this.route.snapshot.paramMap.get('id');
		this.userService.getUser(id).subscribe(user => this.user = user);
	}

	goBack(): void {
		this.location.back();
	}

}

Here in the above class we fetch the user detail for a given user id as a path parameter. We also provide goBack() function to give user option when he/she wants to go to the previous page.

Now open src/app/user-detail/user-detail.component.html file to update with below code:

<div *ngIf="user">
  <h2>{{user.name | uppercase}} Details</h2>
  <div><span>Id: </span>{{user.id}}</div>
  <div>
    <p>
		Name: {{user.name}}
    </p>
	<p>
		Email: {{user.email}}
    </p>
  </div>
  <button (click)="goBack()">go back</button>
</div>

Now when you click on Detail link, you will see below details on browser:

python rest flask angularjs crud

User Edit

Now we will implement functionality for updating existing user.

Open the file src/app/user-edit/user-edit.component.ts and update as below:

import { Component, OnInit, Input } from '@angular/core';
import { Location } from '@angular/common';
import { ActivatedRoute } from '@angular/router';

import { User } from '../user';
import { UserService } from '../user.service';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-user-edit',
  templateUrl: './user-edit.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./user-edit.component.css']
})
export class UserEditComponent implements OnInit {
	
	@Input() user: User;

	constructor(private route: ActivatedRoute, private userService: UserService, private location: Location) { }

	ngOnInit() {
		this.getUser();
	}
	
	getUser(): void {
		const id = + this.route.snapshot.paramMap.get('id');
		this.userService.getUser(id).subscribe(user => this.user = user);
	}
	
	save(): void {		
		this.userService.updateUser(this.user).subscribe(success=> {this.goBack();});
	}

	goBack(): void {
		this.location.back();
	}

}

We fetch the user details first and these values will be used to populate the input fields on HTML form so that user can understand what was the previous value for a field.

Now open src/app/user-edit/user-edit.component.html file to update as below:

<div *ngIf="user">
  <h2>{{user.name | uppercase}} Details</h2>
  <div><span>Id: </span>{{user.id}}</div>
  <div>
    <p>
		Name: <input [(ngModel)]="user.name" placeholder="User Name">
    </p>
	<p>
		Email: <input [(ngModel)]="user.email" placeholder="User Email">
    </p>
  </div>  
  <button (click)="goBack()">go back</button>
   
  <button (click)="save()">save</button>
</div>

When you click on Edit link in the user list page then you will see below output on browser:

python rest flask angularjs crud

Now you can change the name as below and save:

python rest flask angularjs crud

The user list page updated as

python rest flask angularjs crud

Note: If you face problem regarding “http status 405 – method not allowed”, then you can change the method from POST to PUT for route /update in server side code on main.py script.

...
@app.route('/update', methods=['PUT'])
...
if _name and _email and _password and _id and request.method == 'PUT':
...

User Add

Next we will implement functionality for adding new user information. Open the file src/app/user-add/user-add.component.ts and update with below code:

import { Component, OnInit, Input } from '@angular/core';
import { Location } from '@angular/common';

import { User } from '../user';
import { UserService } from '../user.service';

@Component({
  selector: 'app-user-add',
  templateUrl: './user-add.component.html',
  styleUrls: ['./user-add.component.css']
})
export class UserAddComponent implements OnInit {

	@Input() user: User = { title: '', url: '' };
	
	constructor(private userService: UserService, private location: Location) { }

	ngOnInit() {
	}
	
	save(): void {
		this.userService.addUser(this.user).subscribe(() => this.goBack());
	}

	goBack(): void {
		this.location.back();
	}

}

Update the file src/app/user-add/user-add.component.html as below:

<div>
  <h2>Add User Detail</h2>
  <div>
    <p>
		<label>Name:
			<input [(ngModel)]="user.name" placeholder="User Name"/>
		</label>
    </p>
	<p>
		<label>Email:
			<input [(ngModel)]="user.email" placeholder="User Email"/>
		</label>
    </p>
	<p>
		<label>Password:
			<input type="password" [(ngModel)]="user.pwd" placeholder="User Password"/>
		</label>
    </p>
  </div>
  <button (click)="goBack()">go back</button>
   
  <button (click)="save()">save</button>
</div>

Now when you enter new information:

python rest flask angular crud

Then click on save button:

python rest flask angularjs crud

User Delete

Now if you click on the X link to delete a user, let’s say you want to delete the user with ID 1. You will get confirmation alert and you need to click Yes for deletion.

Note: If you get http status error – 405 => method not allowed. Add method DELETE to route /delete/<int:id> as shown below:

@app.route('/delete/<int:id>', methods=['DELETE'])

Once deleted you will be left with only one user as shown below:

python rest flask angular crud

That’s all. Hope you got idea on Python REST APIs + Flask + Angular CRUD Example.

Recommended reading:

Python web application CRUD example using Flask and MySQL

Thanks for reading.

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